The unique action of the PURE-LIGHT TECHNOLOGIES light bulb is that it uses light in a photocatalytic action to continuously create two special types of super oxygen molecules called Superoxide (0-2) and Hydroxyl ion radical (HO) that kill bacteria, viruses, mold, and also break down toxic VOC pollutants. The air that we breathe is full of these bacteria, viruses, mold, toxic pollutants (called VOC--Volatile Organic Compounds like Carbon Monoxide, Benzine, Formaldahyde...) especially in enclosed areas like hospitals, schools, businesses, and homes looking for a place to land and grow. As air comes near the PURE-LIGHT coated light bulbs it gets cleansed of these bacteria, viruses, mold, and pollutants. The air also gets deoderized as well. There is also a secondary PURE-LIGHT effect on the surfaces of items near the light bulb, such as kitchen/bathroom counters, dishes, stoves, cutting boards, door knobs, etc.
Superoxide (O-2) inside the body, or in the air, combines with a microorganism giving it essentially a boost of oxygen. Good cells thrive with the extra oxygen while viruses and bacteria are killed by the extra oxygen.
Superoxides are also used in firefighterers' oxygen tanks and divers rebreather systems in order to provide a readily available source of oxygen.
The HYDROXYL ION radical (HO) is often referred to as the "detergent" of the atmosphere because it reacts with many pollutants called VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), often acting as the first step to their removal.
Hydroxyl radicals also attack the porous cell walls of bacteria and viruses which destroys them through the process known as cell lysing. Human, animal and plant cells are “designed” to be in the sunlight and have cell walls that are less porous and are not harmed by atmospheric hydroxyl radicals.
Though the properties of TiO2 are well documented, there have been problems in the past with applications:
* The first problem is that the photocatalytic process of TiO2 works well with sunlight or high power UV lights but not with ordinary light. PURE-LIGHT overcomes this by using a newly developed proprietary enhanced TiO2 formulation (Z-TiO2) that works extremely well with ordinary light. PURE-LIGHT TECHNOLOGIES has the exclusive rights to use this new formulation on light bulbs.
* The second problem is getting the TiO2 to "stick" to a surface longer than a few weeks or months. That is why other companies have tried to do it, but it has not worked very well for them. PURE-LIGHT has developed a new patent pending process that can "seal" the TiO2 to the surface of a light for up to 10 years. Since PURE-LIGHT developed it, no one else has it.
Below are a number of studies that delve into the properties and uses of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.
Title: Performance and mechanism of standard nano-TiO2(P-25) in photocatalytic disinfection of foodborne microorganisms - salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes
|Long, Men -|
|Wang, Jiamei -|
|Zhang, Yingyang -|
|Wu, Haizhou -|
|Zhang, Jianhao -|
Submitted to: Food Control
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 22, 2013
Publication Date: November 17, 2013
Citation: Long, M., Wang, J., Zhuang, H., Zhang, Y., Wu, H., Zhang, J. 2013. Performance and mechanism of standard nano-TiO2(P-25) in photocatalytic disinfection of foodborne microorganisms - salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes. Food Control. 39(2014):68-74.
Interpretive Summary: Salmonella and Listeria are commonly detected in both raw and ready-to-eat meat products, and are responsible for many outbreaks of foodborne diseases in the USA. Nano-TiO2 has been demonstrate to be very effective to inhibit microbial growth under UV light, and is considered as a novel material that can be used for eliminating microbial pathogens from food. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of nano-TiO2 particles on bacterial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium and Listeria Monocytogenes, which are commonly found on raw and/or cooked poultry meat products. Our results show that nano-TiO2 effectively reduced the populations of either of the pathogens under UV light. Its effectiveness could be affected by nano-TiO2 concentrations and the initial microbial populations. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to nano-TiO2 treatment than Salmonella. Electronic microscopic images showed that under UV light, nano-TiO2 resulted in damage of bacterial cell walls, release of cell components, and subsequently the cell death. These results demonstrate that we can use nano-TiO2 to treat food products and reduce the risk of foodborne diseases by reducing pathogen populations and/or inhibiting pathogen growth.
Technical Abstract: In this paper, effects of disinfection by nano-TiO2 were studied on the two typical foodborne microorganisms, Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium-Listeria monocytogenes, in meat products. The performance of nano-TiO2 against the foodborne pathogens was evaluated using a suspension system and the cellular mechanism was determined by images observed under an transmission electronic microscope. Results show that under UV light, nano-TiO2 disinfected both Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens very effectively in the suspension system under UV light. L. monocytogenes was more resistant to nano-TiO2 treatment than Salmonella under UV light. Nano-TiO2 concentrations and the initial bacteria populations in the suspensions had significant influences on the effectiveness of photocatalytic disinfection against the pathogen, S. typhimurium. The optimum concentration was between 0.2g/L and 1.5g/L. Increased initial S. typhimurium population (from 104 to 107 CFU/mL) resulted in reduced effectiveness of the photocatalytic disinfection by nano-TiO2. Electron microscope images revealed that nano-TiO2 photocatalytic disinfection started with damage of bacterial cell walls; then cell components released or defused out of the cells; and subsequently the cells completely lost their morphology (dissolved) and died. These results demonstrate that nano-TiO2 is very effective against pathogens that can grow well on meat products and the effectiveness can be significantly influenced by nano-TiO2 contents and pathogen populations. The findings in these experiments provide the essential information for further developing a nano-metal-based, antimicrobial packaging system to improve safety of meat products.
Titanium dioxide is the subject of new controversy, yet it is a substance as old as the earth itself. It is one of the top fifty chemicals produced worldwide. It is a white, opaque and naturally- occurring mineral found in two main forms: rutile and anatase. Both forms contain pure titanium dioxide that is bound to impurities. Titanium dioxide is chemically processed to remove these impurities, leaving the pure, white pigment available for use. Titanium dioxide has a variety of uses, as it is odorless and absorbent. This mineral can be found in many products, ranging from paint to food to cosmetics. In cosmetics, it serves several purposes. It is a white pigment, an opacifier and a sunscreen. Concern has arisen from studies that have pointed to titanium dioxide as a carcinogen and photocatalyst, thus creating fear in consumers. But are these claims true? What does the research on these allegations bear out? Would we as consumers benefit from avoiding this mineral to preserve our long-term health?
A carcinogen is a substance that causes a cellular malfunction, causing the cell to become cancerous and thus potentially lethal to the surrounding tissue and ultimately the body as these rapidly growing mutated cells take over. With the surge in cancer rates among all segments of the population, many people are attempting to reduce or eliminate their exposure to carcinogens. Titanium dioxide is regarded as an inert, non-toxic substance according to its Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
Potential adverse effects are also listed on its MSDS, readily available online. For example, the MSDS has stated that titanium dioxide can cause some lung fibrosis at fifty times the nuisance dust, defined by the US Department of Labor as 15 mg/m cubed (OSHA) or 10 mg/m cubed (ACGIH Threshold Limit Value). Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified titanium dioxide to be a possible human carcinogen, thus a group 2B carcinogen. In Canada, titanium dioxide is now listed under WHMIS class D2A (carcinogen)as a result of the IARC designation (ccohs.ca). The definition by the IARC for Group 2B possibly carcinogenic to humans is as follows:
"This category is used for agents for which there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. It may also be used when there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. In some instances, an agent for which there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and less than sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals together with supporting evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data may be placed in this group. An agent may be classified in this category solely on the basis of strong evidence from mechanistic and other relevant data." (monographs.iarc.fr)
The NIOSH declaration of carcinogenicity in rats is based on a study by Lee, Trochimowicz & Reinhardt, "Pulmonary Response of Rats Exposed to Titanium Dioxide by Inhalation for Two Years" (1985). The authors of this study found that rats chronically exposed to excessive dust loading of 250 mg/m cubed and impaired clearance mechanisms within the rat, for six hours per day, five days per week for two years, developed slight lung tumours. They also noted that the biological relevance of this data to lung tumours in humans is negligible. It is important to note that rats are known to be an extremely sensitive species for developing tumours in the lungs when overloaded with poorly soluble, low toxicity dust particles. Rat lungs process particles very differently compared to larger mammals such as dogs, primates or humans (Warheit, 2004). This sensitivity in the lungs has not been observed in other rodent species such as mice or hamsters (Warheit, 2004), therefore using the rat model to determine carcinogenicity of titanium dioxide in humans can be misleading, as extrapolation of species-specific data to humans is erroneous.
Many organizations and businesses have perpetuated this assessment of the carcinogenicity of titanium dioxide (ewg.org). However, several studies and study reviews have been used to compile the safety disclaimers for the regulations on the permitted use of titanium dioxide. One such study review took place in Rome, 1969 between the World Health Organization and the Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Cross species analyses were performed and reviewed for possible toxicity of titanium dioxide. The conference concluded that among the following species: rats, dogs, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats and human males, ingestion of titanium dioxide at varying diet percentages and over long periods of time did not cause absorption of this mineral. Titanium dioxide particulates were not detected in the blood, liver, kidney or urine and no adverse effects were noted from its ingestion. The U.S. Food & Drug Administration (2002) allows for its ingestion, external application including the eye area, and considers it a safe substance for public health. Other epidemiological studies showed that workers exposed to titanium dioxide exhibited no statistically significant relationship between such exposure with lung cancer and respiratory disease, although some cases of pulmonary fibrosis did occur. These studies were conducted in industrial settings where the increased exposure puts these individuals more at risk than the average person.
Titanium dioxide is listed as a safe pigment, with no known adverse effects when used in cosmetics, and approved by the FDA when 99% pure. It is not listed as a carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, comedogen, toxin or as a trigger for contact dermatitis in any other safety regulatory publications beside the NIOSH (Antczak, 2001; Physical & Theoretical Chemical Laboratory, Oxford University respectively), with the exception of the recent IARC designation. It is reasonable to conclude then, that titanium dioxide is not a cancer-causing substance unless exposure is beyond safe limits during manufacturing using this substance. It is considered safe for use in foods, drugs, paints and cosmetics. This does not end the debate, however, as controversy over the safety of one unique form of titanium dioxide still exists.
One form of mineral or mineral extract, including titanium dioxide, that we should be concerned about is ultrafine or nano particles. As technology has advanced, so has its ability to take normal sized particles of minerals and reduce them to sizes never before imagined. While many are praising this new technology, others are warning of its inherent dangers to our bodies. A study by Churg et. al. at the University of British Columbia in their paper "Induction of Fibrogenic Mediators by Fine and Ultrafine Titanium Dioxide in Rat Tracheal Explants" (1999) found that ultrafine particles of the anatase form of titanium dioxide, which are less than 0.1 microns, are pathogenic or disease causing (see Table 1).
(NOTE: THE PARTICLES THAT ARE USED BY PURE-LIGHT ARE 80-100 NANOMETERS. Additionally, they are sealed in a matrix and adhered to a surface and are not "free" floating. )
|Table 1: Measurements of Mineral Pigment Particles|
|Coarse||Less than 10 microns|
|Fine||Less than 2.5 microns|
|Ultrafine (nanoparticles)||Less than 0.1 microns or 100 nanometres|
|Table 2: Particle Size and Entry into the Human Body|
|Nanoparticle Size||Entry Point|
|70 nanometres||Alveolar surface of lung|
|30 nanometres||Central Nervous System|
|Less than 20 nanometres||No data yet|
Kumazawa, et. al. in their study, "Effects of Titanium Ions and Particles on Neutrophil Function and Morphology" concluded that cytotoxicity (danger to the cell) was dependent on the particle size of titanium dioxide. The smaller the particle size, the more toxic it is (see Table 2). This conclusion is relevant to the consumer because of the cosmetics industry's increasing use of micronized pigments in sunscreens and colour cosmetics. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide are used in sunscreens because they are colourless at that size and still absorb ultraviolet light. Many cosmetic companies are capitalizing on metal oxide nanoparticles. We have seen, however, that if titanium dioxide particles used to act as a sunscreen are small enough, they can penetrate the cells, leading to photocatalysis within the cell, causing DNA damage after exposure to sunlight (Powell, et. al. 1996) The fear is that this could lead to cancer in the skin. Studies with subjects who applied sunscreens with micronized titanium dioxide daily for 2-4 weeks showed that the skin can absorb microfine particles. These particles were seen in the percutaneous layers of the skin under UV light. Coarse or fine particles of titanium dioxide are safe and effective at deflecting and absorbing UV light, protecting the skin, but consumers should avoid using products with micronized mineral pigments, either in sunscreens or colour cosmetics.
As with any health issue, relevant studies must be examined closely to reach balanced conclusions about its impact on our health and well-being. Often, risk determinations are made without considering actual hazards and real-life exposures (Warheit, 2004). The Organic Make-up Co. considers fine or coarse particle sized titanium dioxide and other mineral pigments to be safe according to the studies available and information discussed in this article. Despite repeated requests for micronized pigments in our colour cosmetics, we insist on using only coarse or fine particles of mineral pigments, balancing our need to look beautiful with our more pressing need to stay healthy. With the multitude of cosmetics and chemicals available to us, it is in our best interest to become informed as consumers and make pure, natural and simple choices to protect our health and longevity.
Updated April 30, 2013References: